On April 3, 2020, Canada informed the United States and Mexico that it had completed its national process of ratifying the agreement.  During the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Donald Trump`s campaign included a promise to renegotiate or eliminate NAFTA if the renegotiations fail.  After the election, Trump made a series of changes that influenced trade relations with other countries. The exit from the Paris Agreement, the cessation of participation in the Trans-Pacific Partnership negotiations and the significantly larger increase in tariffs with China were some of the steps he took, which reinforced the fact that he was serious about changing NAFTA.  Much of the debate about the virtues and errors of the USMCA resembles the debate on all free trade agreements (FTAs), such as the nature of free trade agreements as public goods, potential violations of national sovereignty and the role of commercial, labour, environmental and consumer interests in the development of the language of trade agreements. OTTAWA — The renegotiated North American Free Trade Agreement will enter into force on July 1, three years after talks began with the revision of the trilateral trade agreement between Canada, the United States and Mexico. The United States, Mexico and Canada have agreed on the most advanced, comprehensive and highest environmental chapter of a trade agreement. Like the work chapter, the ”Environment” chapter puts all environmental provisions at the heart of the agreement and makes them applicable. On December 19, 2019, the U.S. House of Representatives passed the USMCA with multiparty support with 385 votes (Democracy 193, Republican 192) to 41 (Democracy 38, Republican 2, Independent 1).  On January 16, 2020, the U.S.
Senate passed the trade agreement by 89 votes (Democrats 38, Republicans 51) to 10 (Democracy 8, Republican 1, Independent 1) and the bill was forwarded to the White House for the signature of Donald Trump.  On January 29, 2020, Trump signed the agreement (Public Law No: 116-113).  NAFTA has been formally amended, but not the 1989 Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, which is only ”suspended.”   On May 30, the U.S. Trade Representative, Robert E. Lighthizer, presented to Congress a draft declaration on the administrative measures necessary to implement the U.S.-Mexico-Canada agreement (USMCA and the new NAFTA), in accordance with the Presidential Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) Act 2015 . The project will allow congress to be presented to Congress, after 30 days, on June 29, a law to implement the USMCA. In a letter to House of Representatives critic Nancy Pelosi and Minority House Republican Leader Kevin McCarthy, Lighthizer said the USMCA is the gold standard in the United States.