But Donald Trump seems less interested in WTO rules. Gabriel Felbermayr, a foreign trade expert at the ifo economic policy think tank, says we should not be under any illusions. He argues that Trump believes that trade cannot be a win-win situation, but rather a game of chance that can help the United States achieve its goals. The Guardian called TTIP ”the most controversial trade deal ever negotiated by the EU.”  TTIP negotiations are criticised and rejected by some trade unions, charities, NGOs and environmentalists, particularly in Europe.   The Independent summarizes the negative effects of TTIP as ”reducing regulatory barriers to large companies, food security, environmental legislation, banking regulation and sovereigns of different nations” or more critical than ”the attack on European and American companies by transnational groups”.  German economist Max Otte stated that proposed arbitration (ISDR) and the protection of foreign investment would mean a ”total deviation from policy” and that free trade agreements on the labour economy would generally apply lower standards and that the TTIP would put European workers in direct competition with the Americans (and, in fact, under the North American free trade agreement with the Mexicans). which would have an impact on European social models.  Otte also concluded: ”We really don`t want the social system of these countries [U.S. and Mexico] here [in Europe].”  In March 2013, a coalition of digital rights organizations and other groups issued a statement calling on negotiators to ”have TTIP debated in the US Congress, the European Parliament, national parliaments and other transparent for a,” instead of ”conducting closed negotiations that give privileged access to insiders,” and getting TTIP out of the agreement. The United States and the European Union together account for 60% of global GDP, 33% of world trade in goods and 42% of world trade in services. There are a number of trade disputes between the two powers, but both depend on the economic market of the other, and disputes concern only 2% of total trade.
A free trade area between the two countries would potentially be the largest regional free trade agreement in history and would cover 46% of global GDP.   Click here for an overview of existing EU free trade agreements. Turkey has bilateral and multilateral agreements: negotiations were to be concluded by the end of 2014, but according to economist Hosuk Lee-Makiyama, there were at least four or five years of additional negotiations left by the end of the year.  In November 2014, the Bulgarian government announced that it would not ratify the agreement unless the United States lifted the visa requirement for Bulgarian citizens.  Successive initiatives by European policy-makers and the US government have been: the creation in 1995 of a business interest group, the Transatlantic Trade Dialogue (TABD) by authorities on both sides of the Atlantic; 1998, the creation of an advisory committee, the Transatlantic Economic Partnership; The Transatlantic Economic Council was established in 2007, bringing together business representatives from both sides of the Atlantic to advise the European Commission and the US government – and finally, in 2011, the creation of a high-level panel of experts whose conclusions, presented on 11 February 2013, recommended the opening of negotiations for a large-scale free trade agreement.