2014 Comprehensive Agreement On The Bangsamoro

On 15 October 2012, the Philippine government signed a highly mortgaged document, billed as a framework agreement on Bangsamoro, which culminated in the Aquino administration`s efforts to end the deadlock in the peace process. Although the new document establishes only a general framework for the actual peace negotiations, it was announced that ”the status quo is unacceptable and that the Bangsamoros will be put in place to replace the Muslim Mindanao Autonomous Region (ARMM). Bangsamoro was the new autonomous political entity (NPE) mentioned in the April 2012 decision points. According to President Aquino, this was the agreement that could ”finally seal a real and lasting peace in Mindanao”. [15] with Bangsamoro replaces ARMM, which was described by President Benigno Aquino III as ”a failed experiment”. [16] Instead of bringing Muslim leaders together, this agreement further fragmented the MNLF[13] because some groups within the group preferred independence to autonomy. Thus, a group of officers led by Hashim Salamat[14] disbanded and founded the Moro Islamic Liberation Front (MILF) to continue its armed struggle for an independent Bangsamoro (Moro Nation) nation in Mindanao. On 24 January 2014, Miriam Coronel Ferer, the Philippine government`s chief negotiator, and Mohagher Iqbal, the philippine`s chief negotiator, signed a peace agreement in Kuala Lumpur. The agreement would pave the way for the creation of the new Muslim autonomous entity called Bangsamoro, according to a law that must be approved by the Philippine Congress. To achieve its goal of freeing bangsamoros, the MNLF involved government forces in large-scale armed clashes[5] that culminated in the early 1970s, when the rebels` glittering operations gave them control of a considerable number of communities around Cotabato City and their airport complex. This led the Marcos regime to strengthen the military presence by deploying nearly three-quarters of the army[6] to most Muslim parts of Mindanao.

The case took another turn in 1976, when Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi negotiated an agreement[7] that resulted in the signing of the Tripoli Agreement,[8] which introduced the concept of an autonomous Muslim region to Mindanao. On August 1, 1989, Congress, under the new 1987 Constitution, passed Republic Act 6734,[10″ which approved the creation of the Muslim Mindanao Autonomous Region (ARMM). However, of the 13 provinces and 9 cities that participated in the referendum,[11] only the provinces of Lanao del Sur, Maguindanao, Sulu and Tawi-Tawi have decided to be part of the ARMM. THE ARMM was officially founded on November 6, 1990. [12] It also reaffirms the commitment made by both parties to conclude the following agreements/documents: 12. Addendum to waters and amsamoro areas of common cooperation, signed in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, on January 25, 2014. E. Addendum to The Waters and Joint Cooperation Areas of Bangsamoro (signed on 25 January 2014) which describes the perimeter of the waters under the territorial jurisdiction of Bangsamoro (12 nautical miles) and the common cooperation or water zones (Sulu and Moro Sea) on the territory of the Philippines, but not within the Bangsamoro government. At the signing ceremony, Philippine President Benigno Simeon Aquino III, Al-Hajj President Murad Ebrahim, Malaysian Prime Minister Najib Razak, participated in others involved in the peace process and foreign representatives.

Japanese Ambassador to the Philippines Toshinao Urabe and President of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Akihiko Tanaka, were among those who experienced the historic event. The current ARMM charter lists fourteen areas that are not within the purview of the regional legislature. In this comprehensive peace agreement, the parties list 81 powers reserved for the central government, exclusively for the Bangsamoro, and at the same time with both parties to the division of power.